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Adkeynta caaga ah iyo farsamada wax ka beddelka, akhri kan waa ku filan yahay!

Waqtiga: 2023-04-24 09:28:05 Hits: 38

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Maanta, balaastikada la beddelay ayaa door muhiim ah ka ciyaaraya nolosha qaranka, gaar ahaan qaybaha baabuurta iyo qalabka guryaha, halkaas oo ay ka ciyaaraan door aan la bedeli karin. Qaybaha badan ee tignoolajiyada balaastikada ah ee wax laga beddelay, tignoolajiyada adkaynta caagga ah ayaa la darsay oo fiiro gaar ah u leh wareegyada tacliinta iyo warshadaha, sababtoo ah adkaanta walxaha inta badan waxay door muhiim ah ka ciyaaraan codsiga alaabta. Waxaan ka jawaabi doonaa dhowr su'aalood oo ku saabsan adkeynta caagga:


   1. Sidee loo tijaabiyaa oo loo qiimeeyaa adkaanta caagagga?

 

   2. Waa maxay mabda'a adkaynta balaastiga?

 

   3. Waa maxay hababka adag ee loo heli karo caagadaha?

 

   4. Maxay yihiin wakiilada adag ee inta badan la isticmaalo?

 

   5. Sida loo fahmo adkaynta waa in marka hore la kordhiyo awoodda?

 

Astaamaha adagaanta balaastikada

 

Markasta oo ay sii weynaato qallafsanaanta maaddadu way yar tahay u nugulnaanta qallafsanaanta, way sii weynaataa adkaanta waxay u nugul tahay qallafsanaanta.

 

Adayga, oo ka soo horjeeda qallafsanaanta, waa hanti ka tarjumaysa fududaynta qallafsanaanta shayga, way ka weyn tahay qallafsanaanta maaddada ayaa u nugul qallafsanaanta, way sii weynaataa way u nugul tahay qallafsanaanta. Guud ahaan, adkaanta weyn, qallafsanaanta walxaha, xoogga jilicsanaanta, moduleska jilicsanaanta (Dhallinyarada modules), xoogga foorarsiga, modules qallooca ayaa ka weyn; Taa beddelkeeda, adkaanta weynaanta, way sii weyn tahay dhererka nasashada iyo saamaynta xoogga. Awoodda saamayntu waa xoogga muunadda ama qaybta si ay u adkaysato saamaynta, badanaa waxa loola jeedaa tamarta uu nuugo muunada ka hor inta aan dillaacin. Awoodda saameyntu waxay ku kala duwan tahay qaabka muunada, habka tijaabada iyo xaaladaha muunada, sidaas darteed looma kala saari karo hanti aasaasi ah.

 

Natiijooyinka laga helay hababka tijaabada saamaynta kala duwan maaha kuwo la barbar dhigi karo

Hababka tijaabada saamaynta, marka loo eego heerkulka tijaabada, waxaa jira saamaynta heerkulka qolka, saamaynta heerkulka hooseeya iyo saamaynta heerkulka sare; marka loo eego xaaladda culayska muunada, waxa loo qaybin karaa saamaynta foorarsiga - Saamaynta dhogorta fudud iyo iftiinka cantilever, saamaynta jilicsanaanta, saamaynta torsional iyo saamaynta dhogorta; iyadoo loo eegayo tamarta la isticmaalo iyo tirada saamaynta, waxa loo qaybin karaa saamayn tamareed oo weyn iyo tijaabada saamaynta tamarta yar. Qalabka kala duwan ama isticmaalka kala duwan ayaa dooran kara hababka tijaabada saamaynta kala duwan, oo waxay heli karaan natiijooyin kala duwan, natiijooyinkani maaha kuwo la barbardhigo.

 

Habka adkaynta iyo saamaynta saamaynta balaastikada

 

(A) Aragtida koox-xiirid qalin ah

 

Nidaamka isku dhafka ah ee caagadaha caagga ah ee adag, doorka qaybaha caaggu inta badan waa laba dhinac:

Dhinaca kale, oo ah xarunta udub-dhexaadka walaaca, u soo jiid shaxanka si ay u soo saaraan tiro badan oo xariijimo lacag ah iyo xargaha dhogorta; dhanka kale, xakamee horumarinta xadhkaha qalinka si ay xadhkaha qalinku u dhamaadaan wakhtiga oo aanay u kobcin dildilaacyo burburiya.

 

Goobta walaaca ee dhamaadka sarreenka lacagta ah ayaa keeni karta xadhkaha xiirta oo ka dhigi kara midhaha qalinku joogsado. Waxa kale oo ay joojisaa horumarinta lacagta qalin-jabinta marka ay ku fido aagga xiirta. Jiilka iyo horumarinta tiro badan oo Silverline ah iyo xargaha xiiridda waxay cunaan xaddi badan oo tamar ah marka maaddadu ay cadaadis saarto, sidaas darteed maaddada ka dhigaysa mid aad u badan. Silvering si makroscopically ah ayaa lagu muujiyey sida ifafaale caddaynta stress, halka xiirid xiirid la xidhiidha luqunta wanaagsan, taas oo ku kala duwan substrates balaastikada ah.

 

Tusaale ahaan, adkaanta matrixka HIPS waa mid yar, qalinjabin, cadaadis caddeeya, mugga qalinka ayaa kordha, cabbirka transverse asal ahaan waa isbeddel, jilicsanaan la'aan qoorta ganaaxa; PVC adag, adkaanta matrix waa weyn yahay, dhalid inta badan waxaa sababa band xiirid, waxaa jira luqun ganaax ah, ma cadaadin stress; HIPS/PPO, silvering, band dhogorta ayaa isku mar qaadata qayb weyn, qoor fiican iyo ifafaale caddaynta walaaca isku mar.

 

(B) Qodobbada saameeya saamaynta adkaynta balaastiiggu waa saddex dhibcood

1, Astaamaha xabagta salka

Cilmi-baaristu waxay muujinaysaa in hagaajinta adkaanta xabagta matrixka ay ku habboon tahay hagaajinta saameynta adag ee balaastigga adag, hagaajinta adkaanta xajinta matrixka waxaa lagu gaari karaa siyaabaha soo socda: kordhi miisaanka molecular ee resin matrix, si miisaanka kelliga ah qaybintu waxay noqotaa cidhiidhi; wanaaji adkaanta adiga oo xakameynaya haddii crystallization iyo crystallinity, cabbirka crystal iyo qaabka crystal. Tusaale ahaan, wakiilada nuclei-ka ayaa lagu daraa PP si ay u kordhiyaan qiyaasta crystallization iyo nadiifinta crystals, sidaas darteed hagaajinta adkaanta jabka.

 

2. Guryaha wakiilka adag iyo qiyaasta

(1) saamaynta wakiilka toughening kala firdhiyey size qayb wejiga - waayo balaastiig elastomeric adag, sifooyinka of resin salka kala duwan yihiin, qiimaha ugu fiican ee size qayb wajiga kala firdhiyey ee elastomer ma aha isku mid. Tusaale ahaan, qiimaha ugu fiican ee cabbirka walxaha caagga ah ee HIPS waa 0.8 ~ 1.3μm, cabbirka walxaha ugu fiican ee ABS wuxuu ku saabsan yahay 0.3μm, cabbirka walxaha ugu fiican ee PVC-la beddelay ABS wuxuu ku saabsan yahay 0.1μm.

(2) Saamaynta qiyaasta wakiilka adkeynta - Waxaa jira qiimaha ugu wanaagsan ee isku darka wakiilka adag, kaas oo la xiriira qiyaasta kala dheereynta walxaha.

(3) Saamaynta heerkulka kala-guurka dhalada ee wakiilka adkeysiga - guud ahaan hoos u dhaca heerkulka kala-guurka galaaska ee elastomer, ayaa si fiican u saameeya saameynta adag.

(4) Saamaynta xoogga isdhexgalka ee wakiilka adkeynaya iyo resinka saldhigga - nidaamyo kala duwan, saameynta xoogga dammaanadda isdhexgalka ee saameynta adkeynta way kala duwan tahay.

(5) Saamaynta elastomeric toughening dhismeedka wakiilka - iyo nooca elastomer, shahaadada iskutallaabta, iwm.

 

3, xoogga isku xidhka labada weji

Xidhiidhka wanaagsan ee u dhexeeya labada weji ayaa ka dhigi kara cadaadiska si wax ku ool ah loogu wareejin karo inta u dhaxaysa wejiyada si loo isticmaalo tamar badan, si ka sii wanaagsan waxqabadka guud ee caagagga macro, gaar ahaan horumarinta ugu muhiimsan ee xoogga saameynta. Caadiyan xoogga isku xidhka waxa loo fahmi karaa is dhexgalka labada weji, copolymerization graft iyo block copolymerization waa hab caadi ah oo lagu kordhiyo xoogga isku xidhka labada weji, farqiga u dhexeeyaa waa in ay sameeyaan bond kiimikaad iyada oo loo marayo synthesis kiimikaad, sida graft copolymers HIPS, ABS, SBS copolymers block, polyurethane.

 

Si loo adkeeyo wakiilada si ay u adkeeyaan balaastikada, waxay ka tirsan tahay habka isku-darka jirka. Nidaamka isku-dhafka ku habboon waa inuu noqdaa laba qaybood oo qayb ahaan iswaafaqsan iyo weji kasta, waxaa jira lakabka isdhexgalka ee u dhexeeya wejiyada, lakabka interfacial ee labada silsiladood ee molecular polymer-ka ayaa midba midka kale ku kala firdhiyaa midba midka kale, waxaa jira qulqulo feejignaan cad, iyadoo la kordhinayo iswaafajinta u dhexeeya qaybaha isku dhafan, si ay u yeeshaan dammaanad wanaagsan, ka dibna kor u qaadida faafinta is-dhexgalka, kordhinta dhumucda lakabka isdhexgalka. Tani waa tignoolajiyada furaha u ah adkaynta balaastikada iyo diyaarinta alloysyada polymer - tignoolajiyada ku habboonaanta polymer!

 

Waa maxay shuruudaha u baahan adkeyn? Waa maxay hababka?

 

(A) Waa maxay baahida loo qabo adkaynta

 

1, xabagta synthetic lafteedu maaha mid adag, waxay u baahan tahay in la hagaajiyo adkaanta si loo daboolo isticmaalka baahida, sida GPPS, homopolymer PP, iwm.

 

2, si weyn u wanaajiso adkaanta caagga, si loo gaaro adkeysi aad u sarreeya, jawi heerkulka hooseeya, shuruudaha isticmaalka muddada dheer, sida naylon adag oo adag.

 

3, xabagta ayaa la buuxiyey, ololka retardant iyo wax ka beddelka kale ee ay sababto hoos u dhac ku ah waxqabadka alaabta, wakhtigan waa in ay ahaataa mid wax ku ool ah adkaynaya.

 

(B) sida loo qaybiyo habka adag ee caagga ah

 

1, caag elastomer toughening: EPR (etylene propylene diene), EPDM (EPDM), caag butadiene (BR), caag dabiici ah (NR), caag isobutylene (IBR), caag nitrile (NBR), iwm. wax ka beddelka adag.

 

2, adkeynta elastomer thermoplastic: SBS, SEBS, POE, TPO, TPV, iwm, oo inta badan loo isticmaalo polyolefin ama resin toughening non-polar, loogu talagalay polyester, polyamide iyo koox kale oo shaqaynaysa polar oo ka kooban polymer adkeysi u baahan in lagu daro compatibilizer.

 

3, copolymer-core qolof iyo reactive terpolymer adag: ACR (acrylates), MBS (methyl acrylate - butadiene - styrene copolymer), PTW (etylene - butyl acrylate - glycidyl methacrylate copolymer), E-MA - GMA (ethylene - methyl acrylate). glycidyl methacrylate copolymer), iwm, oo inta badan loo isticmaalo balaastikada injineernimada iyo polymers-ku-kulul-sare ee adkaysiga Alloy adkaynta.

 

4, adkaanta caag adag oo isku dhafan: PP / PA, PP / ABS, PA / ABS, HIPS / PPO, PPS / PA, PC / ABS, PC / PBT, iwm. balaastikada injineernimada.

 

5, siyaabaha kale ee adkeysiga: nano-particle toughening (sida nano-CaCO3), sarin resin (DuPont metal ionomer) adkaynta, iwm;

 

Balaastigga guud waxaa guud ahaan lagu helaa polymerization-ka dheeraadka ah ee xorta ah, silsiladda molecular ee ugu weyn iyo silsiladda dhinacyadu kuma jiraan kooxaha polar, oo lagu adkeeyey in lagu daro qaybo caag ah iyo qaybaha elastomer waxay heli karaan saameyn adag oo wanaagsan; iyo balaastikada injineernimada guud ahaan waxaa lagu helaa polymerization qiiqa, silsiladda dhinaca silsiladda molecular ama kooxaha dhamaadka waxaa ku jira kooxaha polar, oo lagu adkeeyay iyadoo lagu darayo caag shaqeynaya ama qaybo elastomer ah oo adag.

cusbiWaxyaalaha adag ee sida caadiga ah loo isticmaaloWaxyaalaha adag ee sida caadiga ah loo isticmaalo wax ka beddelka adkaynta
PolyolefinNR,EPR,EPDM,SBS,SEBS,EVAGABAY,EPDM
PVCNBR, MBS, CPE, TPU, ABS, ACRCPE, ACR
ABSCPE, ACR, budada xanjo sareBudada xanjo sare
PCMBS, caag akrylate ah oo Silikoon ka koobanMBS
PBT/PETE-GMA,EPDM-GMA,POE-GMA,Copolymers-core qolof, ionomersGABAY-GMA,E-MA-GMA
PA

NBR, EPDM, SBS, SEBS iyo POE iyo copolymerkeeda u dhigma, copolymer-core-shell

.UHMWPE, Cajalad

POE-MA,SEBS-MA,EPDM-MA
PPOHIPS,SEBS-MA,POE-MAHIPS
PPSSEBS-MA,HDPE-MA,TLCP,ionomer,PTFE,E-MA-GMASEBS-MA,E-MA-

Sida loo fahmo furaha adkeynta waa in la kordhiyo awoodda?

 

Guud ahaan, balaastiigtu waxay nuugtaa oo kala daadisaa tamarta habka is-goynta isdhaafsiga, cavitation iyo matrix xiirashada marka la hoos geeyo xoogagga dibadda, marka laga reebo caagadaha caagga ah ee aan dabaylaha ahayn ee lagu adkeyn karo iyada oo si toos ah loogu daro qaybo elastomeric ah oo leh iswaafajin wanaagsan (mabda'a isku midka ah) , resins kale ee polar waxay u baahan yihiin awood wax ku ool ah si loo gaaro ujeedada ugu dambeysa ee adkeynta. Noocyo dhowr ah oo ah copolymers-ku-tallaalidda hore loogu sheegay inay yihiin wakiillada adkaynaya waxay la yeelan doonaan is-dhexgal xooggan ee substrate-ka, tusaale ahaan:

 

(1) Ku adkaanta nooca kooxda epoxy functional: kooxda epoxy waxay furaan giraanta ka dibna waxay la falgalaan kooxda polymer terminal hydroxyl, kooxda karboxyl ama kooxda aminiga ah ee falcelinta dheeriga ah.

 

(2) adkaynta qolofka-core: kooxda shaqada ee dibadda si buuxda ayay ula jaan qaadaysaa qaybta iyo caagtu waxay ciyaartaa saamayn adag.

 

(3) Ionomer nooca adag: iyadoo la kaashanayo kakanaanta u dhexeeya ions birta iyo xididdada karboxilic acid ee silsiladaha polymer si ay u sameeyaan shabakad jireed oo iskutallaabta ah, sidaas darteed ciyaaraya door adag.

 

 Dhab ahaantii, haddii wakiilka adag loo tixgeliyo sida fasalka polymers, waxaa suurtagal ah in la kordhiyo mabda'a awood u leh dhammaan isku dhafka polymer. Jadwalka soo socda, diyaarinta warshadaha ee isku-dhafka polymer-ka faa'iido leh, awoodda falcelinta waa tignoolajiyada ay tahay in aan isticmaalno, markaa wakiilka adagi wuxuu leeyahay macne kale, "adkeynta compatibilizer", "emulsifier interface" cinwaanka ayaa si gaar ah garaaf ahaan u leh!

 

Marka la soo koobo, adkeysiga caagga ah, ha ahaato caagadaha crystalline ama caagadaha amorphous si siman muhiim u ah, iyo balaastikada ujeedada guud, balaastikada injineernimada ilaa balaastikada injineernimada gaarka ah si ay si tartiib tartiib ah u wanaajiso caabbinta kulaylka, qiimaha qiimaha ayaa sidoo kale kor u kacaya, si ay u adkeysiga kulaylka ee adkeynta wakiilada, caabbinta gabowga, iwm ayaa soo bandhigay shuruudaha sare, laakiin sidoo kale on wax ka beddelka caaga ah technology adkaynaya tijaabo weyn, iyo waxa ugu muhiimsan sidoo kale waa midda ugu muhiimsan waa iyo matrix iyo qaybaha si ay u ilaaliyaan waafaqid wanaagsan!


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